The Policy of Educational System in Iraqi- Kurdistan


Assist. Prof. Dr. Ali Mahmood Jukil
English Department, College of Basic
Education, Salahaddin University-Hawler
E-mail address:galimjukil@yahoo.com
                                       Abstract

         This study is restricted to the policy of educational system that was adopted in Iraq- Kurdistan that is related to sociolinguistics, which, in turn, is related to the development of the educational system in Iraq- Kurdistan.  
It is generally recognized that Iraqi- Kurdistan exposed to the racist and Arabization policy which raised many problems to the Kurdistan people and that is to be hindering progress in all respects and as such it has become an urgent issue, which has to be studied and solved.
         This study contributes to the teaching infrastructure of the development of the education system in various stages. The present study is both theoretical and practical, the theoretical aspects will be beneficial for understanding the policy that was/is adopted in solving problems, especially to have an adequate understanding of the policy planning of the educational system. On the side it is an imperial study in developing educational system in order to contribute to the development of the education and sociolinguistics.
    This study is divided into
    The first one is about historical background of the policy of educational system. The second one presents the educational situation during the mandate period 1920- 1932 while the section three deals with the Kurdish education during the republican Iraq. While the section four is devoted to the 1970- 1974 period, but the section five explains the policy which is adopted during the period after the collapse of Kurdish Revolution of September while section six is devoted to the policy which is adopted during the period of aftermath of the Kurdish uprising March 1991 until the academic year 2010- 2011 that is the core of the study since the dramatic changes occurred in the policy of educational system. At the end the conclusion ,the list of reference and appendices are presented.
   

The Policy of Educational System in Iraqi- Kurdistan

Assist. Prof. Dr. Ali Mahmood Jukil
English Department, College of Basic
Education, Salahaddin University-Hawler
E-mail address:galimjukil@yahoo.com

I-0-Introduction

     This study is restricted to the policy of educational system that was adopted in Iraq- Kurdistan that is related to sociolinguistics, which, in turn, is related to the development of the educational system in Iraq- Kurdistan.
It is generally recognized that Iraqi- Kurdistan exposed to the racist and Arabization policy which raised many problems to the Kurdistan people and that is to be hindering progress in all respects and as such it has become an urgent issue, which has to be studied and solved.
        This study contributes to the teaching infrastructure of the development of the education system in various stages. The present study is both theoretical and practical, the theoretical aspects will be beneficial for understanding the policy that was/is adopted in solving problems, especially to have an adequate understanding of the policy planning of the educational system. Also it is an imperial study in developing educational system in order to contribute to the development of the education and sociolinguistics.
        This study is divided into
   The first one is about historical background of the policy of educational system. The second one presents the educational situation during the mandate period 1920- 1932 while the section three deals with the Kurdish education during the republican Iraq. While the section four is devoted to the 1970- 1974 period, but the section five explains the policy which is adopted during the period after the collapse of Kurdish Revolution of September while section six is devoted to the policy which is adopted during the period of aftermath of the Kurdish uprising March 1991 until the academic year 2010- 2011 that is the core of the study since the dramatic changes occurred in the policy of educational system. At the end the conclusion ,the list of reference and appendices are presented.
I-1-Historical Background
     Little is known about  education, culture and religion of the Kurds before the Islamic Conquest of the seventh century. The majority of the Kurds became Moslems though they did not, unlike some people such as the Copts, became Arabized in language, Kurdish language, education and culture were, however, profoundly affected by the new religion and the Arabic language which formed pillars of power structure of the Caliphate (Hassanpour, 1992: 50).
       Islam as a religion paid attention to the education process, but Islam introduced literacy in the Arabic language into Kurdistan and elsewhere. The Holy Qur’an is written in Arabic which is believed to be the language chosen by Allah to deliver the divine message. In order to propagate the new faith in a language previously unknown to the populace. Individuals had to be trained who could read and write in Arabic, and who were able to interpret and to put into practice the religious law (Shariaha). These men, known as mullah (mela in Kurdish), were local Kurds trained in schools (called hujra) which formed part of the mosque system. The mosques were/are available in every village in Kurdistan. For along time the mosque system was the only method for learning and education. This method was respectful by the populace that was due to the religious belief. In the mosque system, the grade of learning as follows:
1. Suxta = pupil (It is Persian term. It means burning and this indicates that such pupils in working and learning under supervision of Mustahid were burnet)
2. Mustahid = students (It is Arabic term it means prepared)
Both were called faqê
3. The graduated grade = (mela)
I-1-1- The Curriculum of The Mosque System
The curriculum of that system was as follows:
1. Sipara: learning Arabic alphabet
2. Learning to read Holy Qura’an
3. Tasrifi Zinjani = Zinjani’s morphology
4. A’awamil Georgiyani (Arabic Syntax)
5. Bina( Structure )
6. Sahdulla*
7. Al_numzaj*
8. Al_Izhar*
9. Al_Samadiya*
10. Al_Kafiya*
11. Wazh u Istihara (borrowing)
12. Tasrifi (Morphology) mela Ali
13. Jami*
14. Siuiti*
15. Isaxoji*
16. Finari*
17. Said Abdulla*
18. Abdulla yazdi*
19. Sharh shamsi*
20. Gulinboy Adab*
21. Gulinboy Burhan*
22. Sharh Al-Haqaid(Explain of Believe )
23. Muxtasar (summary or Abstract)
24. Mitawad(Unity)
25. Jamhil Jawamih (Collect of Collections)
26. Tahzib-Al kalam(politness of Speech)
27. Sharhi Al-maqasid (interpretation of the purposes)
28. Sharhi-al-tajrid (interpretation of inventory)
29. Xulasat Al-hisab (the abstract of arithmetic)
30. Tashrih-Al-flaq (Astronomy)
31. Isterlab
32. Sharhi- Al-mawaqif
33. Chaqmi

       The above curriculum indicates that the core of the mosque school (Hujra) curriculum,
*-Entitled according to the name of authors , the content is about Arabic Language and Islamic Law.

consisted of the Arabic grammar, the fundamentals of Islam, logic, elementary arithmetic,                                                                                                
Astronomy and jurisprudence (Sharihat), rhetoric, theology and prosodic. The curriculum concentrated on learning reading skills, therefore individuals trained to learn reading and interpretation the Holy Qura’an. The curriculum didn’t pay attention to learning writing skills (Kakasur 2002: 4).
I-1-2-The Methods of Teaching      

     When the children went to the Hujra for the first time they were called suxta, they were taught by Mustahid, both of them were called “faqê”, but Mustahids were taught by mullah (mela).
     The students and the teacher were sitting in a circle as groups; they tried to learn reading and interpretation, the whole students shared in discussing the topic. They adopted traditional methods but late methods of teaching changed into classical methods, i.e. they focused on the interpretation of the unfamiliar Arabic. At the same time they didn’t pay attention to the writing skill or to communication in learning the Arabic language.

 I-1-3-The Medium of Instruction
      As previously mentioned. The core of the mosque school curriculum consisted of Arabic grammar, the fundamentals of Islam. According to Islam, the Holy Qura’an is the word (kalam) of Allah and cannot be translated into other languages, therefore, this explains why obligatory daily prayers (niwezh) and other religious rites:, such as burial, are conducted solely in Arabic, i.e. that the medium of instruction was Arabic, but after many attempts, Persian and Turkish alongside the Arabic became the medium of instruction in the mosque school system in Kurdistan. (In the Kurdistan which was under Persian occupation, the domain medium of instruction was Persian alongside with the Arabic, while in the part which was under the occupation of the Ottoman Empire, the medium of instruction was Turkish alongside with the Arabic language).
      Literacy creation remained the only written use of the language until the 7th century when attempts were made to introduce Kurdish as a medium of instruction into the educational system of the mosque. Taking the practice of mosque schools since 19th century as a guide, it can be inferred that Kurdish was always used to explain the unfamiliar Arabic, Persian or Turkish languages to the student. The first one who introduced Kurdish into an educational mosque system was the Great Poet Ahmedi Khani (Xani), in spite of his love for his mother tongue; Khani had to teach his students (feqěs) in the mosque schools in Arabic language. Introducing a minor language such as Kurdish into an educational system, where “the language of Allah”. i.e. Arabic, was the medium of instruction, was a serious bid’ek which Khani to commit. He compiled a brief, easy-to-copy; Arabic-Kurdish lexicon entitled Nǔbehara Biçùkan “(Children’s Nubar” (first picking of fruit) or (New Spring for Children). A century later, a similar glossary was composed in Sorani (Central Kurmanji) by Sheikh (şex) Marif ki`Nodeyi (1790). The significance of the two works lies more in institutionalizing the use of written Kurdish in the religious educational system in its lexicographic contribution (Hassanpour1992, 89).
      Khani (Xani) wrote another short work intended for use by mosque school students (faqês), known as “Eqida Iman” (belief in faith), and the work explains, in verse, the principles of Islam education  
        The mosque school system was criticized in various aspects such as the curriculum, the methods of teaching, the unhealthy institution, and the medium of instruction….etc. But the advantage of this system was that the students (faqês) could mobile and travel from school to another school for the purpose of continuing their studies. This type of transporting from place to another place in Kurdistan, geographically had the affect on the nationality feeling even it was in a silent type. It can be said this type of the educational system, in addition to that the  students got information from the books, they became more experience in the way of life as the result of the transporting from one place to another place(Kakasur2002;6).  

I-2-Formal Education in KR of Iraq            
     Modern Formal schooling, which is usually structured in the form of primary, secondary and higher education, relies on the extensive use of written and oral language.One major impact of the extension of Ottoman rule over all parts of Kurdish provinces in the latter of 19th century was the opening of modern schools. These schools nurtured a new generation of intelligentsia that was different from the traditional clerical and aristocratic literati:
 1-Their students were educated in Turkish and learnt an European language, usually French
 2-Their students were secular in world out look and education.
 3-The Ottomanians, for discrimination between mosque schools and formal schools’ systems, used the name “Madrasa” (Medrese). For the mosque schools, while “Maktab” (Mekteb) for the formal schools (Hassanpoor1992:89).

I-2-1- Stages of Education
    Formal education in Ottoman Empire and also in Iraqi Kurdistan was divided into four stages:
 1-Primary study schools
 2-Al- Rushdia ( secondary study schools)
 3-Preparatory or Sultanian study schools
 4-Higher studies
 
     The Ottoman Empire opened several primary schools in various parts, according to ratio of the population. But for the Kurdish parts, the policy was different. Only Rûşdia (secondary schools) were opened. The proportion of Iraqi Kurdistan Region is illustrated in table No.I with a graduate age of approximately twelve years (cf. Table. No.I).
    This phenomenon to notice, instead of paying attention to flourishing primary schools by Ottoman rulers, while they paid attention to opening secondary schools; therefore; the students of the mosque schools were admitted in the Rushdians’ schools(Kakasur2003:7).
   A general view of the size of the new intelligentsia is provided by data on Rushdia schools, and their students in Iraqi Kurdistan region in 1898(cf. Table No.II).
 
I-2-2-The Curriculum of Formal Education
     The curriculum of the modern schools consisted of natural sciences, mathematics, history, and geography, Religious materials, Turkish, Arabic, Persian languages; Turkish grammar, calligraphic; logic, physical training(athletics).
      While military education provided training in cavalry, artillery, engineering, religious faith, natural science, mathematics, history, geography, logic, Arithmetic’s, the principle of registration, Turkish grammar; orthography; calligraphic, physical training, and athletics, logic, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, French and English language. The mentioned curriculum concerned with the Rushdia secondary schools in Kurdistan.
         In general, during the Ottoman rules the curriculum of primary schools consisted of Arabic Alphabet, the Holy Qura’an, recital or modulation, moral ethics, the science of state affairs, learning, writing (orthography), Abstract of arithmetic, brief history of Ottoman Empire, Abstract of geography, General Information, as well as Turkish and Arabic languages.
    While the curriculum of preparatory (Al-Sultanya) schools which was four years consisted of religious and moral sciences, Turkish, French, Arabic, and Persian languages , formal writing, law , economics, history, geography, arithmetic, the basic registration of (Accounting ) , Al- Jabir , engineering, mechanics , biology, cosmography, plants and agriculture art, practical agriculture , agriculture geography, health and science, philosophy, logic, calligraphic, and fine arts ( Kakasur2003:18) .
     And finally, the graduates of these formal schools became cadres for the government’s civil military bureaucracies. The new intelligentsia played a significant role in the new literary, linguistics and political upsurge during and after the Young Turk Revaluation of 1908(Hassanpour1992: 79).
I-2-3- Methods of Teaching
     The methods of teaching were traditional methods in which they concentrated on the contents and their interpretation i.e. that the methods were mixture of the classical and translation methods. They concentrated on the theoretical issues rather than practical and actual affaires. An important thing in the formal schools was regulations. Also in those schools the writing skill got more attention than in the mosque school system.
I-2-4- Medium of Instruction  
     The medium of instruction was Turkish alongside with Arabic, and raised the problem for the children from other nations, but this problem was solved by using the local vernacular in interpretations.After the Young Turk Revaluation of 1908, the status of formal education in provinces of Mosul Vilait (Iraqi Kurdistan) altered, and the situation was improved, some primary and three preparatory schools were opened, such as:
 1-Mulki preparatory in Mosul; the number of students were (24).
 2-Mulki preparatory in Karkuk; the number of students were (135).
 3-Mulki preparatory in Sulemani; the number of students were (163).
       In addition to the existing of primary schools in Hawler (Erbil), Sulemani,Karkuk and Musol, the new primary schools were opened in Akrê, Duhok, Koye, Zakho, Kifre, but the   students of the mosque schools did not interest in joining the modern schools, and this is due that the modern schools concentrated on the Turkish language as a medium of instruction.
II-Educational Situation During The Mandate Period, 1920- 1932
       After the occupation of Baghdad in 1917, the British authorities began to recognize the educational system that the Ottoman Turkish had established on the basis of European, chiefly French, and models. One change was happened  in the medium of instruction which had formerly in Turkish. According to an official report ‘Arabic, or local vernacular in places where Kurdish, Turkish, Persian or Syriac was spoken, was adopted as the medium of instruction’ (G.B. 1923- 4: 201).
But during the mandate period, a great change occurred in the area, which was the establishing the modern state of Iraq and Southern Kurdistan ( Mosul Viliate) was affected by that event, because after that  the southern Kurdistan became part of the modern country ‘ Iraq’ where the modern education was the progressive of the state. Individuals or minority groups were not allowed to establish schools or any type of educational institution without permission, which was usually not granted.According to the data taken from the annual reports and census, the situation of the educational development during the mandate period can be illustrated in the table No.III (cf. Table No. III).
II-2- Arabization of Kurdish Education
       The connection between Kurdish nationalism and the demand for mother tongue education was well known to both the Arab government and the British Mandate authorities who, as an overall policy of curbing this nationalism, tried to restrict instruction in the language.Arabazation of the primary schools increased, especially in the Mosul, Karkuk and Hawler Liwas. Arabazation was carried out through channels, e.g, changing textbooks, appointment non-Kurdish teachers, alluring students to shift to Arabic, and direct Arabazation of the schools. (Zari Kirmanji, No.I, May 24, 1926: 16).
      According to data taken from the annual reports, however, the Kurdish share of primary / elementary schools was not larger than 11.43 %( cf. Table No.IV).
II-3-Medium of Instruction
       During the mandate period, the medium of instruction was Arabic or local vernacular in places where Kurdish, Turkish, Persian or Syriac was spoken, but later Arabazation of the primary schools increased, especially in the Mosul, Karkuk and Hawler Liwas.
II-4-The Curriculum
      The curriculum during the six years of primary school consisted of religious, Arabic, Arithmetic, history and geography, health, civil & moral knowledge, English, calligraphy, drawing, manual jobs and songs. (cf.Table No. V).
II-5- Scope of Instruction in Kurdish
     According to the previous syllabus which is indicated in Table No.V. the syllabus of the primary course of study of 1928, which was used at least until 1942, included twelve subjects taught in the six grades of Arabic language primary schools.This regular course of study was modified for Kurdish and Turkish schools-Arithmetic, Geography, Objects lesson, civic and morals were to be taught in Kurdish; also, the periods given to Arabic language (49) and Arabic penmanship (9) were divided between Kurdish and Arabic (cf. Table No. VI).
II-6-Educational System of Iraqi Kurdistan Region in The Monarchical period, 1932-58
      The development of educational system of Iraqi Kurdistan during 1932- 1958 in the monarchical period, can be inferred from the difference of the number of the existing of schools in the provinces of Iraqi Kurdistan in the two recorded years “1933-34 and 34 and 1952-53(cf. Table No. VII).
II-7- Curriculum of That Period
       According to the formal of the Ministry of Education (AlMAhrif knowledge) in the year 1938 the curriculum of the primary/elementary studies consisted of the subjects and their hours (of teaching per week) as illustrated in the Table No. VIII which are religion and the Holy Quran, Arabic, Mathematics, Geography, and History objects and health, moral information, English language, Arabic penmanship, drawing and manual and physical education, and singing ( cf. Table No.VIII).
     This regular course of study was modified for Kurdish and Turkish schools, Mathematics, Geography, Objects lessons, and Civic and Morals were to be taught in Kurdish. Singing classes were both in Arabic and Kurdish; also, the periods given to Arabic (42) and Arabic Penmanship (8) were divided between Kurdish and Arabic (Akrawi, 1942: 181-197).
      While the curriculum of intermediate schools in 1949 was as indicated in the Table No.IX(cf. Table No.IX).
      But the curriculum of the preparatory school in 1949 consisted of Arabic, English, translating into Arabic, History, Geography, social situation and economics of Iraq, Al- Jabir, Engineering, Triangle, General science, General mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Economics, Drawing and Athletics, ( cf. Table No .X).    
II- 8- The Medium of Instruction
      Even in Kurdish areas, the medium of instruction was Arabic since it was “an official language “and Kurdish was not, and the interpretation in Kurdish was prevented.By the 1950s it had become apparent that the Arabic-oriented curriculum had put Kurdish in a disadvantaged position. Students were more proficient in Arabic than in Kurdish.Another problem was inability of some, among them Kurdish, teachers to teach in Kurdish, apparently because they had themselves received education in Arabic and found it difficult to make the transition ( Zhin,February 18, 1954 ).
                      III- Kurdish Education in Republican Iraq
III- 1-The 1958 -61 Period
        Education expanded rapidly under the new republican regime. By the academic year 1961 – 62, the number of primary schools in Iraq had increased in Iraqi Kurdish by120% over 1952 – 58, schools in Sulemania recorded an increase of 84 – 4 % ( 232 schools), Hawler ( Erbil) 130-7% ( 240 schools ), Karkuk 173-6% ( 342 schools) and Mosul 84-7% (449 schools).
III-2-Kurdish Education and The Congress of Kurdish Teachers (1958-1961)
         In addition to the expansion of education after the July 14, 1958 Revolution, the opportunities were provided for Kurdish children to be trained and instructed in their national language. In May 1959, a Directorate General of Kurdish studies was established as part of the Ministry of Education. In September, the first congress of Kurdish teachers submitted a number of recommendations to government, among which were teaching in Kurdish in all parts of Kurdistan and in secondary schools, and the establishment of a teacher training college in which Kurdish would be the medium of instruction but these recommendations were largely ignored (Abdulla 1980:158).
        The second congress of Kurdish Teachers (1960) had become the mouthpiece of Kurdish cultural demands. By the academic year 1960-61 the number of children who would be allowed to join schools in the Kurdish area was 207 thousands, but only 136 thousand children joined schools. For the first time, in the Bahdinan region during the period 1958-60, the Kurdish as a medium of instruction was implemented in 175 schools from 314 in Zakho, Duhok, Shekhan and Aqrê, but it was not implemented  in Sinjar and Tillehfer (2nd Congress 1960:38).
III-3-The Period 1961-70
     By the summer of 1961, relation between the Kurds and the government grew tense, and as the result, the war in Kurdistan broke out in September and all these expectations of Kurdish education were put to an end during the Kurdish revolution (1961-1970).
     During the Kurdish uprising of 1961-1969, the education situation worsened since most governmental schools in Kurdistan villages were destroyed by military operations or closed by government. Illiteracy was spread in wide areas. As a consequence, the leaders of the Kurdish uprising, in spite of their modest capacities were forced to open many primary schools and a secondary school in the liberated areas. But they were suffering from deficiency and limitation of the educational aids and capacity, because they didn’t get any aid from the UNESCO, although more than one million persons of Kurdistan population were practically living under the control of Kurdistan revolution (Jukil 2004, 115).
      No progress had been made by July 1968 when a coup d’etat put the second Ba’th government in power. The new regime promised to respect the June 1966 accord, and August 4 a decree was promulgated to put some one of its articles into practice. Among these were the founding of a Kurdish scientific academy in Baghdad and a university in Sulemani. The latter, consisting of three colleges (Engineering, sciences and agriculture) was opened during the academic year of 1968- 1969.
III-4- Medium of Instruction
      During the Kurdish uprising of 1961, the question of native tongue education, as a major demand of Kurdish nationalism, had been tied to the autonomist war. During the early stages of conflict, two Kurdish lessons to the primary schools curriculum and make Kurdish a compulsory subject of study at teachers training institutions. While the medium of instruction in all supervised by the Kurdish uprising in the liberated areas of Kurdistan was Kurdish. The use of Kurdish was a main demand in all negotiations, which took place with successive central governments.
III-5 Development of the Educational System
        During this period many alternations happened in the system of education, especially in the vocational education system. Throughout this period few vocational institutions had been opened, such as industrial institution in Karkuk in 1967, agricultural preparatory in Hawler in 1967, in addition to teachers college, the central institution of teachers training in Hawler in 1967, were opened. Also in 1967 the preparatory schools were expanded into three academic years, the 4th grade was devoted for general preparation which the other two was academic studies; literary and scientific academic studies. For further information about the expansion of educational system during the period 1961-1969, Erbil situation of education can be taken into account in which the number of schools; students and teachers are illustrated in the table No. XI for the period 1961- 1970 (cf. Table No. XI)
III- 6- Curriculum of this Period
    The curriculum of this primary schools consisted of religion, Arabic, Kurdish and English language, arithmetic, geography, Objects and health, notional education, drawing, athletics, and singing. While the curriculum of the intermediate schools consisted of religious education, Arabic, English, arithmetic, engineering, Ali jabir, general science, biology, health, chemistry and physics, geography, history, national education, athletics and drawing. Whereas the curriculum of preparatory schools ; literary , academic consisted of religion, Arabic, English, mathematics, general science, economics, history, geography, status, athletics and drawing, but the curriculum of scientific consisted of religion, Arabic, English, Al- jabir, triangle, solid engineering, physics, chemistry, botany, animals, athletic, and drawing.
       As previously mentioned in 1967 the preparatory schools were expanded into three years, therefore the curriculum also changed, the 4th grade was devoted to general preparation and its curriculum consisted of religion, Arabic, English, physics, chemistry, biology, history, geography, social education, athletics. While the two others was academic studies, the curriculum of scientific academic consisted of religion, Arabic, English, al- jabir, triangle, chemistry, physics, botany, animals, athletics and drawing and the curriculum of literary academic consisted of religion, Arabic, English, history, geography, mathematics, status, economic and athletic.

IV-1-The 1970- 1974 period
       A break through was the march 11,1970 agreement which prescribed ” that Kurdish language be taught in all schools, institution and universities, teacher training institute, the military college and the policy college” ( Iraq Republic 1974:12).
     The article of this decree and other cultural rights of Kurdish were stated in the text of the agreement of March 11, 1974, which was a historical agreement between the leaders of Kurdish national movement and central government. As far as educational system is concerned, the first two years was the period of cultural property that building schools increased in Kurdistan, when the government helped in opening a large number of primary, intermediate secondary schools and institutions in Kurdistan which                                                                                                           were about 600 schools during 1970- 1974. In addition to the enhancement of Sulemani University, many school textbooks were printed in Kurdish (A.P- 1986:22-24). For further illustration and knowing the ranges of expansion in the educational system see the table XII in which the expansion of educational system in Hawler as a sample is taken in to account. (cf. Table XII).
IV-2- Medium of Instruction
       The demands for mother tongue education in all educational levels and in all parts of Kurdistan were realized for the first time in Iraq’s history, because prior to the 11 march agreement Kurdish was the medium of instruction of the primary stage in the governorate of Sulemani and Hawler(Erbil), which was later extended to Duhok without much difficulty. In only 202 schools out of 476 in Karkuk  the teaching is in Kurdish, and another 100 schools could be opened if there are adequate staff and facilities. In Nineweh (Mosul) governorate there are, so far, 93 schools teaching in Kurdish and there has been no difficulty in this respect of Akrê, Shaikhan. But problems have centered in Sinjar and Zimar Nahiya because of the political circumstances. As to Diyala, 60% of the schools in Khanaqin and those of the Qaratu and Miran Nahiyas are taught in Kurdish. A few schools have been opened in Jilawla and sa’adiya, and one school in Mandali. Kurdish teaching in these areas, however, is subject to continuous pressure. While teaching in Kurdish for the secondary stage has been initiated since 1970-1971 in Sulemani and Hawler (Erbil) governorates. At 18 intermediate and secondary schools in Karkuk; and at 5 schools in Khanaqin. Kurdish language and literature are taught in secondary schools in the areas designated for Kurdish teaching (K.D.P 1974; 19).
IV-3-Arabization of The Education System, 1972-1985
       As early as 1972, the government initiated to implement the policy of arabization and change the historical and demographic nature of the large areas in Kurdistan such as Karkuk, Khanaqin, Sinjar and … etc. the government authorities used intimidation to force Kurds in those areas to transfer their children from Kurdish language schools to Arabic ones. In the province of Duhok and Nineweh, 110 schools were closed down (Jukil.2004, 117).
IV-4-Education in liberated Areas; March 11, 1974- March 19, 1975)
      In March 1974, when the government launched its fifth offensive, the results was that education in all its stages was incapacitated in the area, a large number of teachers and students left their schools and joined the revolution that year. Over 66 instructors and over 1500 students from the Sulemania University left Sulemani. The staff decided to restart classes again in Qaladze, but the relocated University was bombed on April 24, 1974 by the Air Force. As a result there were 132 victims (10) ten of them were students of the University.
     In the liberated areas, which were under the control of Kurdistan revolution, there were over 4000 primary school teachers and over 1500 secondary school teachers. That year over 6000 intermediate school students and over 550 preparatory school students were deprived from the final exams (A.P1984:28)
     By the academic year 1974- 1975, and inspite of the intense war. 153 schools were operating throughout the area extending from Khanaqin to Zakho. The medium of instruction for all subjects was Kurdish (Jukil2004, 119).
     For further understanding one can take the situation of educational system in Hawler (Erbil) into consideration and compare the situation of academic year 1973- 1974 and 1974- 1975; in which the number of primary schools in 1973- 1974 was 542 schools while in 1974-1975 was 395 schools; however many primary schools were opened in the area which were under the control of the government authorities. The number of secondary schools in1973-1974 was 53 schools while it was 46 schools in 1974-1975. These numbers indicate the difference between the two situations. For illustration see the Table No, XII (cf. Table XII).
V-Educational System after The Collapse of Kurdish Movement
      This section deals with the status of the education and the policy adopted in this period in which many changes occurred which can be presented in details as follows:
   V-1-The period 1976-1990
      Even the census of this period indicates that many changes in the educational system and the expansion occurred according to the growth of the population. The government paid a vital attention to the vocational, Islamic and Basic education, in addition to the teenagers and illiteracy education, but after the Collapse of the Kurdish Movement practically Kurdish education even in the autonomous areas, was shrunk because of the Arabazation policy and the Iraqi regime’s authorities, through a widespread campaign, displaced Kurds from their villages and thousand of schools were destroyed. Thus hundreds of children were deprived from education. For knowing the range of the development of the educational system in Kurdistan, one can take the development of education in Hawler as a sample by comparing the census of the existing schools and the number of their students and teachers in the academic yeas in 1973-1974 and 1989-1990 and find out the percentage of the development in accordance of the duplication of the growth of population (cf. Table No. XIII).      
V1-1-The Period of Aftermath of The Kurdish Uprising March 1991
       Aftermath the Kurdish uprising in March 1991, the phase of education in Iraqi-Kurdistan has improved in the interest of Kurdish language teaching and in the interest of modern system which adopted as using the modern technology such as video-center, network system, new pedagogical implications such as the most modern methods of teaching and new regulations.
       In the aftermath of the Kurdish uprising in March 1991, the Iraqi government withdrew its administrative units in Kurdistan to taint the image of the Kurdish leadership and create chaos in the region. In short period, the Kurdistani Front took the responsibility of administrating Kurdistan.
       In a historic attitude, the teachers in Kurdistan announced that they will work without any payments; they raised the slogan “we do not bend the high head for the salary”. This coincided with the severe economic crises emerged in the region, but the teachers insisted on their decision. This lasted for a complete year, in which the teachers worked without any payments, and served their nation voluntarily.
After the first parliamentary election of Kurdistan in 1992, the first Kurdish cabinet was formed, including the Ministry of Education and under the auspice of the first Congress for altering the educational system was held in 1993 in which many recommendations were taken including the modification of the law which was adopted for education field in Kurdistan and removing the hostile curriculum adopted by the ba’thist regime from the social sciences and to be replaced by lessons of tolerance, brotherhood and peacekeeping as well as removing ba’th party’s racist and belligerent history to be replaced by Kurdistan and Kurdish history. Regarding the diverse linguistic minorities in Kurdistan, the decision was taken to promote their status as native languages and they to be used in media and as medium of instruction in both primary and secondary schools and they to be used as the language of administration in some particular sectors such as the general directors which had been suggested to be opened in the Ministry of Education (Jukil, 2005;39)
       In 1994, the first resolution (resolution 4) regarding the Ministry of Education was issued. In 1996 the Resolution No. (986) was taken by the United Nation-Security Council which was the program of “Oil for food”. This program relived all aspects of life in Kurdistan; nearly all destroyed schools have been reconstructed and also many schools have been built, funded, and provided with equipments, since before this program the aim was to continues the educational process and provide it for each six years-old child in Kurdistan, but to the lack of sufficient funds, no modification was adopted first.
Two other Conferences were conducted in Kurdistan to develop the educational system of the region, especially the last one which was held in 2007. Many local and education scholars invited to this conference in which the new education system has been adopted and replaced the old one.
V1-2-Educational System During 1991-2011              
       Despite what the KRG has gone through in crises, the Ministry of Education has always been putting efforts to develop education in Kurdistan. Throughout this period, dramatic education changes happened and rapid expansion of educational system can be illustrated in table No.”XIV“, where the number of schools in the academic year 1990- 1991 was 1320 schools in the Region and in academic year 2010- 2011 the number of schools has increased by 5746 schools from 534963 to 1463874 students, which the number of teacher has increased from 21389 to 95666 teachers. For further information about this expansion look at table No. XIV In which the expansion of the number of schools students and teachers with their gender are illustrated (cf. Table No. XIV).
    On the other hand, education in Kurdistan is still in need of serious support and funding. Many new buildings are still lacking in the cities and districts, which resulted in crowded schools and classes. This has seriously affected the students and their academic level, but KRG has planned to provide a required budget for the ministry of education as well as to the KRG’s treasury which is saved as extra budget for building modern schools. As previously mentioned, dramatic attentions occurred in education system in the region round the rights of minorities’ languages and religious rights. Therefore, education by mother tongues is granted right for all minorities in Kurdistan which has been a home to diverse linguistic minorities such as Arabic, Turkmani, Syriac and Armeny. Therefore, the Arabic, Turkmani, Syria and Armenian schools are seen. Also religion is also tolerated in education as Muslims, Christians and Yazidis study their religions.
       Another change happened in education system is that in Iraq, there are six primary years, three secondary and three high preparatory years of studying. Only the first six years are compulsory to attend in Iraq, while in Kurdistan, this system is altered. Students attend nine years of basic level which is compulsory, then three years of preparatory level. In Kurdistan, public education is free and provided for all six years old children even in remote villages. The ministry of education is planning to push education forward, and develop it in all dimensions. In the past, graduate students of teaching preparatory institution were teaching in primary schools. This is not implemented any more. Such institutions are closed now and replaced by College of Basic Education. Thus, holding at least a bachelor’s degree will be a must for teaching in Arabic level. Also the concepts of the basic education, private schools and schools for the gifted developing curriculum and pedagogy are implemented. Another alteration is that training the teachers and academics has always been in Education Ministry’s Agenda. Many NGOs and associations were asked by the ministry to increase the level of teachers. Recently UNSEF and British Council started a project to enhance academic levels and principles of teachers, school principles and education supervisors.    
V1-3-Minorities’ Rights in Education
       Educational System in Kurdistan covers minorities’ rights in education such as Turkmani; Assyrians and Arabs. Aftermath Kurdish Uprising in March 1991, for the first the minorities of Turkmanis and Assyrians has gained their rights in Education and their languages become medium of instruction. Since the previous Iraqi Baa’th regime put Turkumani and Syraic languages in the corner of domestic function and forced their users to change their real nationality into arabs through many channels. Concerning Syriac language, the Iraqi Baa’th regime had attempted to put in the corner of religious function only. But after the Kurdish uprising of March, 1991, Turkumani and Syriac languages have gained their real status as native language for Turkmans and Assyrians respectively. For the first time some primary schools for Turkmani and Syriac were opened in the areas where the majority of population are Turkmani or Syriac speaker. By the academic year 2001-2002 Turkmani and Syriac schools has expanded as in indicated in the Table No.XV.
          The Table (XV) devoted to undergraduates 2001-2002 while by the academic year 2010-2011, the range of the expansion of Turkmani and Syriac schools has increased and for further understanding one can compare the Table No. XVI with the above table in order to deduce the average of the expansion in which illustrated that the number of Turkmani has increased by 18 schools and the number of Syriac schools has increased by 57 schools and the number of students has increased by 2123 students in Turkmani education and by 8696 students in Syriac Education (cf. Table No. XVI).
V1-4-Religious Rights in Educational System
       Aftermath Kurdish Uprising of March 1991, for the first time the Christian and Yazidian Religious have been taught in the schools in which the most students are believer of these religious. Since before the Kurdish Uprising these religions are not allowed to be taught, the believers of these religions only right they had not to attend the religion lesson which was devoted to Islamic religion, but after the Kurdish uprising special schools have been opened for them. nowadays, in 57 schools the Christian religion has been taught particularly in Erbil and Dihok Governments and the Yazidian religion has been taught in schools especially in government Dihok and some districts such as Sinjar, Bahshiqa and Shekhan.
V1-5-Private Schools      
       In the monarchy period, many isolated attempts were made for spreading education in Kurdistan. In this case Kurdish nationalists played an important role because education was considered significant in the propagation of education which in turn stimulated national and patriotic consciousness. Example of these private schools “ Kashti Noah” founded by writer Najmadin Mullah, and “Jamhiyat Zanisti Kurdi” “scientific society” founded by Ahmed Tawfiq for teaching the Kurdish language. This society continued to teach laborers in the evening until 1937 when it was closed and the government (Mutasarif) of Sulemani withdrew its license later (Jukil 2004, 113).
Since that time any private school as were not granted any license to be opened in Kurdistan till 1997.
     Since 1997 the phase of private education in the Kurdistan region has improved in the interest of the modern educational system under the auspice of the Ministry of Education of KRG. Many private schools have been opened and this is due to the policies have been adopted and to the globalization order in the world, therefore; many private sectors and foreign companies contributed in opening private schools as join-ventures and this is due to the Ministry which is encouraging private sectors to participate in the education process in Kurdistan involve in enhancing education level. The KRG provides private sectors which land and legal contribution. Recently, a considerable wave of private contribution in education witnessed in Kurdistan, which is likely to grow (cf. Table No.XVII).
      These private schools utilize from the modern technical instruments, they concentrated on it in their curriculum in addition to civic and democracy in formation, the medium of instruction in these private schools is English language and Kurdish language is taught as a language. These schools are criticized by the majority of the population since their fees are too expensive in accordance they gain financial supports from KRG.
V1-6-The Curriculum of This Period
      As previously, mentioned due to the lack of sufficient funds, no modification was adopted first. Later, especially after the first conference in 1993, the hostile curriculum adopted by the Ba’th regime was replaced removed from the social sciences, and was replaced by lessons of tolerance, brotherhood, and peacekeeping. Ba’th party’s racist and belligerent history was replaced by Kurdistan and Kurdish history.
Despite what the KRG has gone through in crises, the Ministry of Education of KRG has always been putting efforts to develop education in Kurdistan. Courses of civil education, democracy and human rights were added to education curriculum. English language was taught at the fifth primary class during Saddam’s regime, but it was relatively decreased by KRG, as now it is even taught in some Kindergartens.
The alteration of the curriculum also covers the scientific courses, such as mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology are renewed and modified by the help of local and foreign scholars.
    Concerning languages, Kurdish, beside Arabic and English are taught. In some private schools, French and German are also taught. As well as the minorities languages such as Turkmani, Syriac and Armani languages are taught in the schools which are devoted to the minorities’ communities. Religion is also tolerated in curriculum such as Christian and Yazidy Rligions. There are already plans to include wider fields in the curriculum of the different levels and train the teacher to familiarize them with the updates at the meantime (cf. Table No. XVIII).
V1-7-The Medium of Instruction
     The medium of instruction in this period is Kurdish, alongside Arabic and English. In some of private, French and German are medium of instruction and this is due to the returning back some diaspora people from Europe and Children have educated in French and German. Also the languages of minorities has gained their status as medium of instructions aftermath the Kurdish Uprising; these languages are Arabic,Syriac and Turkmani languages.
Kurdish language is the domain language in the region therefore it is taught in the whole schools. The Kurdish dialect base in instruction is Central Kurmsnji that is accepted as standard language, but there is still a problem because it is not entirely accepted by Northern Kurmanji speakers, therefore the Ministry of education attempts to amalgamate both dialects especially in teaching Kurdish language (cf. Tables No. XIX, XX, XXI XXII).
V1-8-Vocational Education
      As previously mentioned, the Ministry of Education of KRG has been putting efforts to develop education in Kurdistan in various ways, therefore, the Ministry of Education paid a great attention to the Vocational education, such as Agricultural, Industrial, Commercial, Athletics and Fine Arts schools and Institutions as well as giving opportunities blindness and handicap people, for achieving this purpose many formal schools are opened in the Region. In these preparatory schools and institutions the core of their curriculum concentrates on Vocational training.
V1-9-Religious Schools
      In the region, there are two types of religious schools which are formal and informal which depends on the traditional method of the old Mosque system but formal ones are authorized by the Ministry of Aewqaf and Religious Affairs in which their system are modernized. Concerning Islamic religion, the core of their curriculum still consists of Arabic fundamental grammar, the fundamental of Islam, law and jurisprudence (Jukil 2005; 52).  
V1-10-Unsystematic Education (Rapid Education)
      Beside systematic education, unsystematic education is also adopted by the Ministry of Education to uproot illiteracy. Those who are between the ages of 15-45 can attend unsystematic education, in which they will be taught two years curriculum in one year, so as to reach their level quickly. This is organized according to an agenda which is intensively planned. For further knowing about the types of educational system the statistics of the academic year 2010-2011 carried out by the General Directorate of Education of (Hawler) Erbil in which the various educational system with the number of their schools, students and teachers are illustrated, (cf. Table No. XXIII).  
V11-Conclusion
       It can be concluded that the policy of the educational system in Iraqi- Kurdistan region was the same of Iraq, which was adopted by the British mandatory rule in 1920s that system has continuously been modified by the Iraqi regimes in a way that serves Arabization and their interests. This has reached the peak in 1968, when the Ba’thist Party came to power and used the whole education system to dominate its ideology over the state and the people. The system was based on a racist agenda, which mostly used to deny the Kurdish culture and language alongside with other minorities.
     In the aftermath of the populous uprising in Kurdistan in the spring of 1991, the policy of educational system has witnessed a dramatic changes, first of all the hostile curriculum adopted by the Ba’thist regime was removed from the social sciences, and was replaced by the lessons of tolerance, brotherhood and peacekeeping, Ba’th party’s racist and belligerent history was replaced by humanitarian history. Courses of civil education, democracy and human rights ware added to education curriculum the scientific courses such as mathematics; physics, chemistry, and biology are renewed. Concerning medium of instruction, the multilingual policy has been adopted, in which Kurdistan is a dominant language as first language as a medium of instruction and Arabic is also a dominant language as a second language while English was considered as a foreign language and was taught at the fifth primary class during Saddam’s regime. But now it’s even taught in some kindergartens and the policy is that English to be the second language in the regime. Syriac and Turkumani are the minority languages which have gained their status as medium of instruction. In some private schools, French and German are taught.
       Religion is also tolerated in education as Muslims, Christians and Yazidis study their religions, changes also included teachers and system, they should hold at least a bachelor’s degree in order to be a must for teaching in basic level.
In the past, there were six primary years, three intermediate and three high preparatory years of studying. Only the first six years were compulsory to attend, while now in Kurdistan, this system is changed. Students attend nine years of basic level which is compulsory, then three years of preparatory level.
      Basic education is free and provided for all six years old children even in remote villages. Beside systematic education, unsystematic education is also adopted in KR to uproot illiteracy. Those who are between the ages of 15- 45 can attend unsystematic education, in which they will be taught two years curriculum in one year, so as to reach their level quickly.
     Also the private sector is encouraged in order to participate in the educational process in Kurdistan and involve in enhancing education level.
On the other hand, education in Kurdistan is still in need of serious support and funding. Many buildings are still lacking in the cities and districts, which results in crowded schools and classes.  

                                                   References

-    Abdulla, Jamal Jalal (1980). Some Aspects of Language Purism among Kurdish Speakers. PhD dissertation, University of York (England).                                                                                                                                                                         
-    Ahmed,Ibrahim, Kh (1982) Tatwir Al- Tahlim Alwatani fi Al- Iraq 1869- 1932 ‘development of the National Education in iraq 1869- 1932’. Iraq university of Basra press.
-    Akrawi, Matta (1942). Curriculum Construction in the Public Primary Schools of Iraq in the Light of a Study of the Political, Economic, Social, Hygienic, and Educational Conditions and Problems of the Country, with Some Reference to the Education of Teachers: A Preliminary Investigation. PhD dissertation. Columbia University.
-     A. P. (1986). On Education in Iraqi Kurdistan. Iraqi Kurdistan; Xabat press.
-    Great Britain (1923- 1924). Report by His Britannic Majesty’s Government on the Administration of Iraq for the Period April, 1923 December, 1924. London; HMSO, 1925. (Colonial No. 13).
-     Hassanpour, Amir (1992) Nationalism and Language in Kurdistan 1918-1958. USA; San Francisco.
-     Iraqi Government. (1947- 1987). Decennial Census, issued by Ministry of Planning. Baghdad
-     Iraq republic (1974). March 11 Manifesto on the Peaceful Settlement of the Kurdish issue in Iraq. Ministry of Information, documentary series, 31. Baghdad: Al- Hurriya printing house.
-    Jukil, Ali Mahmood (2004). The Process of Standardization with Reference to English and Kurdish Languages. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Salahaddin University. Hawler (Erbil).
-    ……………………  (2005). Language Status Profile of Erbil City. Zanco Magazine No.25 July- 2005;35- 67
-    Kakasur, M. Abdulla(2003) Gashasandi Xiwendn le Kurdistan da la 1920- 1958 “Development of Education in Kurdistan during 1920- 1958” (Unpublished dissertation Salahaddin University- Hawler).
-    K.D.P “Kurdistan Democratic Party- Iraq”1974. On the Kurdish Question at the United Nations. Know the Kurdish series, No.2, June 1974.
-    KRG ministry of? Ewaf, Directorate of Islamic studies. (2000)  Program for International and   Preparatory of Islamic Schools. Erbil.
-     …………. Ministry of education, General Directorate for Program and Education Planning (1996). Program for preparatory studies. Erbil.
-    …………. Ministry of Education. The third conference held in September 10- 12,2011. Erbil.
-    ………… (1997). Program for Vocational Studies. Erbil.
-    ………… Ministry of Education. The Static Bulton 2001- 2002. Erbil.
-    ………… Ministry of Education, General Directorate for Education Planning (2011) the Statistic Bulton 2010- 2011. Hawler
-    ……………….Ministry of Education, General Directorate for Program (2011). Program for Basic Schools and Preparatory Schools2010- 2011. Hawler.
-    ……………, Ministry of Education, General Directorate of Education in Hawler (Erbil) (2011) The Statistic Bulton 1960- 2011. Hawler
-    Zari Kirmanji, No.I, May 24, 1926; 16.
     -   Zhin,February 18, 1954.

Appendices

                                                                                                         Table No. I                                         
Al-Rushdia Schools in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region and Date of their Opening
Al-Rûshdia in the province of                            
                        Date of opening

Karkuk    1870 A.D                         
Hawler (Erbil)                                 1875 A.D
Sulaimani    1875 A.D                             
Salahia (Kifri)                                  1880 A.D
Rawandiz    1890 A.D

                                                                                 Table No.II
Schools and number of students in Kurdish Towns of Mosul Vilayet 1989

Location     Students    Teachers
Sulaimania city Rûşdia    21    3
Military Rûşdia    149    12
Rawandiz    22    2
Hawler(Arbil)    28    2
Total    220    19

Source: based on Ottoman Government cited from (Hassanpour; 1992, 80).

Table NO.III
The number of schools, teachers, and students during the mandate period

Year    Liwa    No. of schools    No. of teacher    No. of student
 
1920- 1921    Mosul, Hawler, Karkuk, Sulemani    9
2
4
2    16
16
18
13    313
220
301
237
1921- 1922    Karkuk
Hawler    11
5        817
514
1922- 1923    Karkuk
Hawler    12
5        934
565
1923- 1924    Hawler
Karkuk
Sulmani    6
17
0    24
48
0    566
985
0
1924- 1925    Hawler
Sulemani
Karkuk    7
1
18    25
5
44    614
106
998
1925- 1926    Hawler
Sulemani
Karkuk    7
4
18    27
12
44    602
326
1066
1926- 1927    Hawler
Sulemani
Karkuk        23
14
46    
                                                                              Table No. IV
Number and Proportion of Kurdish Schools in Iraq, 1923-1930    
Total NO. of Schools in Iraq    Kurdish Schools     Of Total    Annual Reports Year
205
228
247
249
264
271
291    6
15
19
24
28
31
28    2.92
6.57
7.69
9.39
10.44
11.43
9.62    1923-24
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1936

 Table No. V
 The curriculum of primary school in 1928
Subject     Primary class     Other classes
    1st stage     2nd stage     3rd stage     4th stage     5th stage     6th stage
    Hours     Hours     Hours     Hours     Hours     Hours
Religious     6    5    5    3    3    3
Arabic    12    9    8    7    6    6
Arithmetic     6    6    5    5    5    5
History & geography     1    2    4    4    4    4
Health & information     2    2    2    2    2    2
Civil & ethnic knowledge    -    -    -    2    -    -
English language    -    -    -    -    9    9
Calligraphy     -    3    2    2    1    1
Fine arts     -    -    1    2    2    2
Manual Jobs     2    2    2    2    1    1
Athletic    2    2    2    2    2    2
Songs     1    1    1    1    1    1
Total Hours
32    32    32    32    36    36

Table No. VI
 Teaching Arabic and Kurdish in Primary schools of Iraqi Kurdistan Region, 1928

Hour per Week
Grade    Arabic    Kurdish
1
2
3
4
5
6    7
8
6
6
5
5    5
2
2
2
1
1
Total    36    13

Based on Aqrayi (1942; 181,197)

Table No. VII
The number of the formal primary schools in the cities and villages as well as Kindergarten and evening schools, in addition the number of students and teachers

Academic year    Liwa    Number of schools    Number of students    Number of teachers
            Boys     Girls     Total     Men     Woman     Total
1933-34    Karkuk    30    2121    648    2769    57    24    99
    Hawler (Erbil)    23    1497    172    1669    62    9    71
    Sulemani    21    1135    230    1365    39    10    49
1952-53    Karkuk    84    8680    2130    11410    324    135    459
    Hawler (Erbil)    56    4592    1158    5750    189    46    235
    Sulemani    56    4592    1286    5881    184    58    242
Based on (Kakasur 2003)

Table No. VIII
Curriculum of the primary studies 1938

Subjects    1st grade     2nd grade    3rd grade    4th grade    5th grade    6th grade
Religion & the Holy Qura’an    4    4    3    3    2    2
Arabic Penmanship    11    8    7    7    5    5
Mathematics     6    6    5    5    5    5
Geography &History    -    -    4    4    4    4
Objects & Health     2    2    2    2    2    2
Civic & Moral information    -    -    -    1    1    5
English Language    -    -    -    -    5    5
Arabic Penmanship    -    3    3    2    -    -
Drawing & Manual    3    3    4    4    4    4
Physical Education & Singing    4    4    2    2    2    2
Total     30    30    30    30    30    30

Table No. IX
The Curriculum of Intermediate Schools in 1949

Subjects     Hours per week
    1st grade    2nd grade     3rd grade
Religion    1    1    1
Arabic    6    6    6
ENGLISH    6    6    6
HISTORY & Geography    2    2    3
Morals & Duties    -    2    2
Mathematics    4    2    -
Al-Jaber    -    2    3
Engineering    2    2    3
General Science    6    -    -
Physics    -    -    3
Chemistry    6     -    -
Biology    -    2    -
Drawing    2    2    1
Athletics    1    1    1
Health     1    1    1
Total     33    33    33

Table No. X  
The curriculum of the preparatory schools in 1949   

Subject    Scientific studies    Literary studies
    Hrs per a week    Hrs per a week
    4th Grade    5th Grade    4th Grade    5th Grade
Arabic    5    5    7    7
English    6    6    7    7
Translating into Arabic    1    1    1    1
History    -    -    4    4
Geography    -    -    2    3
Social Situation & Economic of Iraq    2    -    2    2
Al-Jaber    2    2    -    -
Engineering     -    3    -    -
Triangle     3    -    -    -
General Science     -    -    4    -
General Mathematics    -    -    2    2
Physics     -    7    -    -
Chemistry     5    -    -    -
Biology     5    5    -    -
Economics     -    -    -    3
Drawing     1    1    1    1
Athletics     2    2    2    2
Total     32    32    32    31

Based on Kakasur (2003; 264).

Table No.XI
The number of schools, teachers, and students in Hawler
(Erbil) province according to their gender for academic years 1961-1970

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1961-1960    Kindergarten    2    0    0    2    95    83    178    0    7    7
    primary    219    73    14    132    18202    5147    23349    854    196    1050
    Secondary    9    3    2    4    1992    449    2441    69    18    87
    Special Secondary    1    1    0    0    317    0    317    0    0    0
    Agriculture    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Industrial    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    0    0    0    10    10
    Central institute for teachers    0    0    0    0    0    167    167    0    0    0
    Teachers training college    2    1    1    0    330    0    330    16    6    22

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1962-1961    Kindergarten    2    0    0    2    0    124    124    0    8    8
    primary    240    69    16    155    14762    44967    59729    882    229    1111
    Secondary    11    5    2    4    2507    773    328    81    21    102
    Special Secondary    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Agriculture    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Industrial    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    202    202    0    15    15
    Central institute for teachers    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Teachers training college    2    1    1    0    319    72    391    15    6    21

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1963-1962    Kindergarten    2    0    0    2    69    49    118    0    0    0
    primary    208    95    24    89    18465    6191    24656    963    274    1237
    Secondary    12    4    3    5    2699    692    3391    90    29    119
    Special Secondary    1    0    0    1    453    1    454    0    0    0
    Agriculture    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Industrial    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    210    210    0    14    14
    Central institute for teachers    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Teachers training college    2    1    1    0    282    105    387    9    8    17

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1964-1963    Kindergarten    1    0    0    1    46    42    88    0    6    6
    primary    183    102    21    60    16538    5799    22337    853    267    1120
    Secondary    13    7    2    4    2863    781    3644    72    20    92
    Special Secondary    1    0    0    1    1970    110    2080    12    0    12
    Agriculture    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Industrial    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    224    224    12    0    12
    Central institute for teachers    2    1    1    0    68    26    94    Lecture    0
    Teachers training college    0    1    1    0    268    149    417    6    7    13

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1965-1964    Kindergarten    1    0    0    1    77    53    130    0    6    6
    primary    241    120    27    94    20649    6752    27401    1088    325    1413
    Secondary    14    5    3    6    3603    1000    4603    100    28    128
    Special Secondary    1    0    0    1    561    2    563    0    0    0
    Agriculture    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Industrial    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    217    217    0    14    14
    Central institute for teachers    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Teachers training college    2    1    1    0    230    137    367    12    8    20

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1966-1965    Kindergarten    2    0    0    2    146    96    242    0    12    12
    primary    237    114    36    87    21278    6988    28266    1253    421    1647
    Secondary    17    7    5    5    3782    1081    4863    140    43    183
    Special Secondary    1    1    0    0    789    0    789    0    0    0
    Agriculture    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Industrial    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    200    200    0    13    13
    Central institute for teachers    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Teachers training college    2    1    1    0    190    321    321    10    10    20

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1967-1966    Kindergarten    1    0    0    1    92    65    157    0    6    6
    primary    243    143    32    68    21408    6808    28216    1246    388    1634
    Secondary    18    7    6    5    4462    1228    5690    134    19    153
    Special Secondary    3    3    0    0    1408    45    1453    5    0    5
    Agriculture    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Industrial    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    229    229    0    14    14
    Central institute for teachers    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Teachers training college    2    1    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    0

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1968-1967    Kindergarten    1    0    0    1    88    68    156    0    7    7
    primary    269    163    29    77    22683    7121    29804    1362    428    1790
    Secondary    23    11    6    6    5023    1839    6862    203    52    255
    Special Secondary    1    1    0    0    718    0    718    0    0    0
    Agriculture    1    1    0    0    90    0    90    12    0    12
    Industrial    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    232    232    0    20    20
    Central institute for teachers    1    1    0    0    45    0    45    0    0    0
    Teachers training college    2    1    1    0    381    192    573    11    13    24

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1969-1968    Kindergarten    1    0    0    1    77    53    130    0    7    7
    primary    284    181    38    70    23300    6806    30106    1392    488    1880
    Secondary    29    12    7    10    244    67    311    6019    1783    7802
    Special Secondary    1    1    0    0    712    0    712    0    0    0
    Agriculture    1    1    0    0    191    0    191    9    0    9
    Industrial    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    206    206    0    16    16
    Central institute for teachers    1    1    0    0    50    0    50    0    0    0
    Teachers training college    2    1    1    0    336    149    485    14    6    20

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1969-1968    Kindergarten    1    0    0    1    77    53    130    0    7    7
    primary    284    181    38    70    23300    6806    30106    1392    488    1880
    Secondary    29    12    7    10    244    67    311    6019    1783    7802
    Special Secondary    1    1    0    0    712    0    712    0    0    0
    Agriculture    1    1    0    0    191    0    191    9    0    9
    Industrial    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    206    206    0    16    16
    Central institute for teachers    1    1    0    0    50    0    50    0    0    0
    Teachers training college    2    1    1    0    336    149    485    14    6    20

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1970-1969    Kindergarten    1    0    0    1    40    42    82    0    7    7
    primary    270    184    45    41    22648    6788    29438    1413    448    1861
    Special primary    1    0    0    1    32    13    45    1    4    5
    Secondary    27    18    6    3    6513    2047    8560    226    75    301
    Special Secondary    1    1    0    0    163    15    178    0    0    0
    Agriculture    1    1    0    0    205    0    205    20    0    20
    Industrial    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    127    127    0    16    16
    Central institute for teachers    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Teachers training college    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0

                                                                                                          Table No. XII
The number of schools, teachers, and students in Hawler (Erbil)according to their and gender for academic years 1970-1974

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1971-1970    Kindergarten    1    0    0    1    85    76    161    0    8    8
    primary    390    241    36    113    27994    7477    35471    1649    449    2098
    Special primary    1    0        1    39    16    55    1    4    5
    Secondary    32    14    8    10    6177    1994    8171    300    84    384
    Special Secondary    1    0    0    1    275    0    275    1    0    1
    Agriculture    1    1    0    0    207    0    207    22    0    22
    Industrial    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    83    83    0    8    8
    Central institute for teachers    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Teachers training college    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1972-1971    Kindergarten    1    0    0    1    10    65    75    0    10    10
    primary    415    364    51    0    30914    7913    38827    1885    514    2399
    Special primary    2    0    0    2    201    151    352    7    7    14
    Secondary    1    1    0    0    467    20    487    0    0    0
    Special Secondary    37    29    8    0    6476    2261    8737    352    105    457
    Agriculture    1    1    0    0    214    0    214    27    0    27
    Industrial    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    48    48    0    7    7
    Central institute for teachers    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
    Teachers training college    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1973-1972    Kindergarten    2    0    0    2    177    66    243    0    12    12
    primary    468    391     77    0    34330    9143    43473    1938    657    2595
    Special primary    2    0    0    2    183    128    311    5    7    12
    Secondary    1    1    0    0    646    46    692    0    0    0
    Special Secondary    39    30    9    0    7857    2550    10407    350    128    478
    Agriculture    1    1    0    0    244    0    244    15    0    15
    Industrial    1    1    0    0    42    0    42    3    0    3
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    60    60    0    10    10
    Central institute for teachers    1    0    0    0    0    0    0    30    0    30
    Teachers training college    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1974-1973    Kindergarten    2    0    0    2    97    63    160    0    12    12
    primary    542    395    126    21    36903    11450    48353    1940    826    2799
    Special primary    1    0    0    1    68    69    137    2    3    5
    Secondary    53    43    10    0    9239    2926    12165    373    133    506
    Special Secondary    1    1    0    0    585    60    645    0    0    0
    Agriculture    1    1    0    0    246    0    246    25    0    25
    Industrial    1    1    0    0    197    0    197    12    0    12
     Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    113    113    0    10    10
    Central institute for teachers    1    0    0    1    798    463    1261    27    1    28
    Teachers training college    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0

Academic year    Grades     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers
            Boys
    Girls    Mixture    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
1975-1974    Kindergarten    2    0    0    2    111    94    205    0    13    13
    primary    395    209    86    100    30657    11320    41977    1585    718    2303
    Secondary    46    30    9    7    9438    3060    12498    336    170    506
    Agriculture    1    1    0    0    300    0    300    26    0    26
    Industrial    1    1    0    0    294    0    294    16    0    16
    Domestic arts    1    0    1    0    0    28    28    0    11    11
    Central institute for teachers    1    0    0    1    550    623    1173    1    36    37
    Teachers training college    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0    0
                                            
                                            
                                                                                         Table No. XIII
Number of students, teachers, and classes with gender for the academic year 1989-1990

Academic year    Stages     No. of schools    Gender of school    No. of Pupils    No. of teachers    No. of groups
            Boys

    Girls    Mixture
    Boys
    Girls
    total
    Male    Female    total
    Boys
    Girls
    Mixture     total
1989-1990    Kindergarten    34    -    -    34    1276    1168    2444    -    226    226    -    -    82    82
    primary    430    52    37    341    86169    54296    140465    2181    4804    6985    937    525    2923    4385
    Intermediate     60    31    18    11    9786    4320    14106    304    356    660    296    147    26    469
    Secondary    59    13    12    34    10024    6998    17022    270    641    911    296    187    194    677
    Preparatory    6    5    1    -    2634    345    2979    106    16    122    80    12    -    92
    Vocational    13    6    2    5    3189    1125    4314    317    167    484    113    33    16    162
    Institutes    3    1    1    1    799    1314    2113    59    33    92    22    22    24    69
    Islamic primary
     2    2    -    -    155    -    155    17    -    17    10    -    -    10
    Islamic secondary    2    2    -    -    618    -    618    18    3    21    22    -    -    22
    Teenagers     5    4    1    -    505    115    620    30    7    37    18    4    -    22
                                                                                              Table No. XIV
Statistical numerical data (schools-pupils*students- teachers) during
academic years (1990-1991) until (2010-2011)

Academic year    Total
    No. of pupils-schools    No of pupils-students    No. of teachers
        Boys     Girls     Male     Female
1990-1991    1320    322482    212481    7182    14207
        534963    21389
1991-1992    1225    321394    220846    7256    13456
        542240    20713
1992-1993    1304    317555    221572    8368    13500
        539127            21868
1993-1994    1656    330265    224140    9936    14045
        554405    23981
1994-1995    2101    332427    237005    11982    14732
        569432    26714
1995-1996    1947    330676    240322    10411    15271
        570998    25682
1996-1997    2086    337000    255769    11571    16343
        592769    29914
1997-1998    2241    354063    262821    12677    18394
        616884    31071
1998-1999    2460    382065    285427    13317    19981
        667492    33298
1999-2000    2782    418308    313926    14556    21552
        732234    36108
2000-2001    3082    436929    337048    14995    22676
        773977    37671
2001-2002    2928    396306    314860    14762    22962
        711166    37724
2002-2003    3140    428478    351673    15904    24683
        780151    40587
2003-2004    3280    465252    377945    17971    26994
        843197    44965
2004-2005    4754    588639    501419    25991    33849
        1090058    59840
2005-2006    4996    620699    501419    26523    35768
        1144774    62291
2006-2007    5069    641971    551997    30304    43124
        1193968    73428
2007-2008    5327    659728    572404    33824    47416
        1232132    81240
2008-2009    5482    715561    623984    36435    46869
        1339545    83304
2009-2010    5534    747558    648571    39278    49673
        1396129    88951
2010-2011    5746    778667    685207    41771    53955
        1463874    95666

Table No.XV
Minorities ,Undergraduates: 2001-2002

    Kurdish     Syriac     Turkumani    Arabic
    school    student    school    student    school    student    school    student
Primary     391    157138    2    90    9    1573    2    658
Intermediate     48    19980    3    1475    -    -    -    -
Secondary     56    27886    1    126    2    355    1    571
Preparatory     9    6962    42    1022    24    304    -    -
Total     507     211966    10    2713     13    2232    3    1229

Table No.XVI

Kurdistan Regional Government
Ministry of Education                                        Census of schools (Turkumani and Syriac Studies)
Directorate of General Educational Planning                          academic year 2010-2011
Directorate of Census

                      Number of Schools
Governorate     Secondary     Primary     Preparatory     Total
Erbil    2    11    2    15
Kfry    1    1    1    3
Total     3    12    3    18
                         Number of Students        
Governorate     Secondary    Primary    Preparatory    Total
    Boys    Girls    Boys    Girls    Boys    Girls    Boys    Girls
Erbil        220    201    618    385    230    123    1068    709
    421    1003    353    1777
Kfry    31    47    78    77    68    45    1777    169
    78    155    113    346
Total    251    248    696    462    298    168    1245    878
    499    1158    466    2123
                                   Number of Teachers    
Governorate     Secondary     Primary     Preparatory    Total
    Male     Female     Male     Female     Male     Female     Male     Female
Erbil    0    27    48    122    14    25    62    174
    27    170    39    236
Kfry    0    6    12    13    9    5    21    24
    0    25    14    45
Total     0    33    60    135    23    30    83    198
    33    195    53    281

                      Number of Schools
Governorate     Secondary     Primary     Preparatory     Total
Erbil    3    15    3    21
Duhok    0    30    6    36
Total     3    45    9    57
                         Number of Students        
Governorate     Secondary    Primary    Preparatory    Total
    Boys    Girls    Boys    Girls    Boys    Girls    Boys    Girls
Erbil        167    211    1925    2111    295    729    2387    3051
    378    4036    1024    5438
Duhok    0    0    1480    1325    214    239    1694    1564
    0    2805    453    3258
Total    167    211    2405    3436    509    968    4081    4615
    378    6841    1477    8696
                                   Number of Teachers    
Governorate     Secondary     Primary     Preparatory    Total
    Male     Female     Male     Female     Male     Female     Male     Female
Erbil    28    46    100    351    20    64    148    461
    76    451    84    609
Duhok     0    0    135    254    38    21    173    275
    0    389    59    448
Total     28    46    235    605    58    85    321    736
    74    840    143    1057

Governorate     Stages    Total
    Kindergarten     Primary     Secondary     Preparatory     
Erbil    21    21    1    4    47
Sulaimania     17    2    0    2    21
Duhok    5    6    0    1    
Total     43    29    1    7    80
                                                                                                          Table No.XVIII
The curriculum of educational system in KR for the academic year 2010-2011

Schedule (1)
Lessons    Kurdish Study    Arabic Study
    First and second shift     Third shift     First and second shift    Third shift
    Classes    Classes    Classes    Classes
    1    2    3    4    5    6    1    2    3    4    5    6    1    2    3    4    5    6    1    2    3    4    5    6
Islamic Education    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2
Kurdish Language     10    10    9    5    5    5    9    9    8    4    4    4    8    6    6    5    5    5    8    6    6    4    4    4
Arabic Language     -    -    -    4    4    4    -    -    -    4    4    4    5    5    5    4    4    4    4    4    4    4    4    4
English Language     3    3    3    4    5    5    3    3    3    3    4    4    3    3    3    4    5    5    3    3    3    3    3    3
Mathematics     6    6    6    6    6    6    5    5    5    5    5    4    6    6    6    6    6    6    5    5    5    5    5    4
Social Science     -    -    -    2    3    3    -    -    -    2    2    2    -    -    -    2    3    3    -    -    -    2    2    2
Civic Education     -    -    1    1    1    1    -    -    1    1    1    1    -    -    1    1    1    1    -    -    1    1    1    1
 Science for all    5    5    5    5    5    5    4    4    4    4    4    4    5    5    5    5    5    5    4    4    4    4    4    4
Human Rights     -    -    -    -    1    -    -    -    -    -    1    -    -    -    -    -    1    -    -    -    -    -    1    -
Arts     2    2    2    1    1    1    2    2    2    1    1    1    2    2    2    1    1    1    2    2    2    1    1    1
Music    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1
Athletics     2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2
Total     31    31    31    32    36    34    28    28    28    29    31    30    34    32    33    33    36    35    31    29    30    29    30    29

                                                                                                          

                                                                                                      
                                                                                                          Table No.XVII
Private schools 2010-2011
Lessons    Basic Stage    Preparatory Stage
    7th Grade    8th Grade    9th Grade    10th literary    11th literary    12th literary    10th scientific    11th scientific    12th scientific
Islamic Education    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2    2
Kurdish Language    4    4    4    4    4    4    4    4    4
Arabic Language    4    4    5    4    4    4    3    4    4
English Language    5    5    5    5    5    5    5    5    5
History    -    -    -    3    3    3    -    -    -
Geography     -    -    -    3    3    3    -    -    -
Social Science    3    4    4    -    -    -    -    -    -
Sociology     -    -    -    2    -    -    -    -    -
Philosophy     -    -    -    -    2    -    -    -    -
Economics      -    -    -    2    3    3    -    -    -
Mathematics     6    6    6    3    3    3    6    6    6
Computer     1    1    1    2    2    -    1    1    1
Science for all    6    6    6    -    -    -    -    -    -
Physics     -    -    -    -    -    -    4    4    4
Chemistry     -    -    -    -    -    -    4    4    4
Biology     -    -    -    -    -    -    4    4    4
Vocational Education    2    2    2    -    -    -    -    -    -
Arts     2    2    2    2    2    1    1    1    1
Athletics     2    2    2    3    3    3    1    1    1
(Human rights) & (Democracy & Politics)    1    -    -    1    -    -    1    1    1
Total     38    38    38    36    36    36    36    36    36
Schedule (2)

Schedule (3)

Lessons    Basic Stage    Preparatory Stage
    7th Grade    8th Grade    9th Grade    10th literary    11th literary    12th literary    10th scientific    11th scientific    12th scientific
Islamic Education    1    1    1    1    1    2    1    1    2
Kurdish Language    4    4    4    4    4    4    4    4    4
Arabic Language    3    3    3    3    3    4    3    3    4
English Language    4    4    4    4    4    5    4    4    5
History    -    -    -    3    3    3    -    -    -
Geography     -    -    -    3    3    3    -    -    -
Social Science    3    4    4    -    -    -    -    -    -
Sociology     -    -    -    1    -    -    -    -    -
Philosophy     -    -    -    -    1    -    -    -    -
Economics      -    -    -    2    3    3    -    -    -
Mathematics     5    5    4    2    2    2    4    4    4
Computer     1    1    -    1    1    -    1    1    -
Sciences    6    6    -    -    -    -    -    -    -
Physics     -    -    2    -    -    -    3    3    3
Chemistry     -    -    2    -    -    -    3    3    3
Biology     -    -    2    -    -    -    3    3    2
(Human rights) & (Democracy & Politics)    1    -    -    1    -    -    1    -    -
Total     28    28    26    25    26    26    27    26    28

                                                                                                      Table (No. XIX   )

Teaching Kurdish, Arabic and English in the medium basic education and preparatory schools in which the medium of instruction is Kurdish 2010-2011

Grade    Kurdish
    Arabic    English
1    10    -    3
2    10    -    3
3    9    -    3
4    5    4    4
5    5    4    5
6    5    4    5
7    4    3    4
8    4    3    4
9    4    3    4
10 (literary)    4    3    4
11 (literary)    4    3    5
12 (literary)    4    4    5
   10 (scientific)    4    3    4
   11 (scientific)    4    3    4
 12 (scientific)    4    4    5
Total    80    41    61
                                                                                        
                                                                                         Table (No. XX)
 
Teaching Kurdish, Arabic and English in the medium basic education and preparatory schools in which the medium of instruction is Kurdish 2010-2011

Grade    Kurdish
    Arabic    English
1    8    5    3
2    6    5    3
3    6    5    3
4    5    4    4
5    5    4    4
6    5    4    5
7    4    4    5
8    4    4    5
9    4    4    5
10 (literary)    4    4    5
11 (literary)    4    4    5
12 (literary)    4    4    5
   10 (scientific)    4    3    5
   11 (scientific)    4    4    5
   12 (scientific)    4    4    5
Total    69    62    68
                                                                                         Table (No. XXI)

Teaching Kurdish, Arabic and English in the medium basic education and preparatory schools in which the medium of instruction is Kurdish 2010-2011
             
Grade    Kurdish
    Arabic    English    Turkmani
1    8    -    3    6
2    6    -    3    6
3    6    -    3    6
4    5    4    4    4
5    5    4    5    4
6    5    4    5    4
7    4    4    5    2
8    4    4    5    2
9    4    4    5    2
10 (literary)    4    4    5    2
11 (literary)    4    4    5    2
12 (literary)    4    4    5    2
   10 (scientific)    4    3    5    2
   11 (scientific)    4    4    5    2
 12 (scientific)    4    4    5    2
Total    71    47    68    48
                                                                
                                                                            Table (No. XXII)
Teaching Kurdish, Arabic and English in the medium basic education and preparatory schools in which the medium of instruction is Kurdish 2010-2011

        
Grade    Kurdish
    Arabic    English    Turkmani
1    8    -    3    6
2    6    -    3    6
3    6    -    3    6
4    5    4    4    4
5    5    4    5    4
6    5    4    5    4
7    4    4    5    2
8    4    4    5    2
9    4    4    5    2
10 (literary)    4    4    5    2
11 (literary)    4    4    5    2
12 (literary)    4    4    5    2
   10 (scientific)    4    3    5    2
   11 (scientific)    4    4    5    2
 12 (scientific)    4    4    5    2
Total    70    47    68    42
     

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

L'indirizzo email non sarà pubblicato.


*